85yo male with a history of prostate cancer s/p radiation and androgen deprivation therapy four years ago complicated by urethral strictures requiring chronic indwelling catheter who presented to the ED yesterday with 3 days of red urine followed by no output from catheter and abdominal pain. In the ED, the patient was found to have stable hemoglobin and creatinine and was discharged with urology follow-up after symptom resolution with catheter irrigation.
Today, the patient reports no new issues, denies abdominal/flank pain, further catheter obstruction, fevers/chills. He states that his urine has been light pink in color, without clots, and significantly more clear than the prior 3 days. He has had intermittent episodes of blood in his urine in the past, but never causing obstruction. His catheter is managed at home with regular (q3wk) changes and no recent traumatic catheterizations.
He denies any new back/bone pain or unintentional weight loss.
- Prostate CA
- No current or previous t/e/d use
- Lives with wife
- lisinopril 20mg p.o. daily
- glyburide/metformin 1.25/250mg p.o. b.i.d.
- atorvastatin 20mg p.o. daily
- ASA 81mg p.o. daily
||Well-appearing, pleasant man in no acute distress.
||+BS, soft, NT/ND, no suprapubic tenderness, no CVAT
||Foley catheter in place draining clear-pink fluid to leg bag, no clots. No evidence of trauma to urethra, no visible skin lesions. Testes descended bilaterally, no inguinal lymphadenopathy.
85M hx CaP (2009) s/p radiation and androgen deprivation therapy with urethral strictures requiring chronic indwelling catheter presenting with macroscopic hematuria. Given patient’s history, radiation cystitis is a likely cause of his symptoms. However, given the long-standing catheter, other considerations include trauma and infection. Also, recurrence or new malignancy must be considered. Will obtain UA, UCx, and schedule patient for cystoscopy with bilateral retrograde pyelogram. Also, educated patient on how to irrigate catheter if needed and provided ED precautions should obstruction persist despite irrigation attempts. Patient’s last surveillance PSA undetectable, continue routine follow-up.
Differential Diagnosis of Macroscopic Hematuria
Important Historical Elements:
- Painless: suggests malignancy
- Painful: suggests calculi/infection
- Urinalysis: presence of dysmorphic RBC’s, RBC/WBC casts, proteinuria suggest intrinsic renal disease
- Timing: early (distal urethra), throughout (upper urinary tract), terminal (bladder neck, prostatic)
- Hicks, D., & Li, C.-Y. (2007). Management of macroscopic haematuria in the emergency department. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ, 24(6), 385–390. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.042457
- Mazhari, R., & Kimmel, P. L. (2002). Hematuria: an algorithmic approach to finding the cause. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 69(11), 870–872–4– 876.
- Howes DS, Bogner MP. Chapter 94. Urinary Tract Infections and Hematuria. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski JS, Cline DM, Ma OJ, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, eds.Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6362340. Accessed June 14, 2013.
- Sutton, J. M. (1990). Evaluation of hematuria in adults. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 263(18), 2475–2480.
Consultation for bowel obstruction
The patient is a 40yo male with a history of alcohol abuse, and seizure disorder secondary to traumatic brain injury who was admitted to this hospital 4d ago after an altercation with law enforcement officials. On arrival, the patient was reported to be acutely intoxicated with ecchymosis and bleeding from left lateral/posterior head and ear. No other significant injuries were found and the patient underwent CT imaging of head and c-spine, with notable findings of left occipital epidural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, but no significant midline shift. Neurosurgery was consulted and no emergent surgical intervention was required, the patient underwent serial imaging to monitor the bleed which was found to be stable and the patient slowly returned to baseline mental status.
On HOD4, the patient developed nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, a nasogastric tube was placed with feculent output. CT abdomen/pelvis showed high grade SBO and possible mesenteric ischemia/infarct, and general surgery was consulted for further evaluation. The patient reported experiencing some abdominal pain since the altercation, but could not recall if he was hit in the abdomen.
- Alcohol abuse
- Seizure disorder
- Tibia fracture
- No prior abdominal surgery
- Current alcohol, marijuana use, no tobacco use
- History of homelessness
- Norco PRN
- Ativan PRN
- LISS, SQH, Thiamine
- VS: T 99.5°F HR 108 RR 16 BP 128/82 O2 99% RA
- Gen: NAD
- HEENT: PERRL, EOMI, sclera clear, anicteric
- CV: RRR, normal S1/S2
- Lungs: CTAB
- Abd: Distended, diffuse tenderness to palpation, no rebound tenderness, no ecchymoses or signs of trauma
- Ext: Warm, well-perfused
- Neuro: AAOx4, appropriate
40M w/hx alcohol abuse, TBI and seizure disorder, presented initially with evidence of head trauma which was stabilized. However, the development of abdominal pain, N/V, and finding of distension on exam associated with copious output of feculent material from NGT suggests bowel obstruction. This patient has no history of abdominal surgeries to suggest adhesions as a possible cause. Though the patient cannot recall any abdominal trauma, and there was no e/o trauma on exam, findings on CT abdomen/pelvis are suggestive of traumatic cause (hematoma causing obstruction or ischemia resulting from mesenteric injury). The patient was monitored for several days, continuing NGT to suction and with serial abdominal films. However, abdominal pain persisted, abdominal radiographs showed worsening obstruction and the patient developed leukocytosis and on HOD7 the patient was taken to the OR for exploratory laparotomy. Upon entering the peritoneal cavity, there was obvious blood and very distended small bowel which was run distally with finding of a mesenteric laceration in the distal ileum which was walled off by omentum. Additionally, a grade 2 splenic laceration was found. Ultimately, a small bowel resection with primary anastomosis along with a repair of the splenic laceration was performed.
Moderate abdominal and pelvic ascites which has Hounsfield unit attenuation is greater than simple fluid suggestive of blood products.
Fluid dilated small bowel
Complex transition point in the central mid abdomen.
Segment of bowel at the transition point has circumferential mural thickening and surrounding complex attenuation mesenteric fluid and mesenteric stranding.
Small bowel distention
Nasogastric tube is seen coiled in the gastric fundus
Left occipital extracranial soft tissue hematoma
Left occipital epidural hematoma subjacent to the fracture site in addition to subarachnoid hemorrhage within the sulci of the left temporal lobe and interpeduncular cistern
Extra-axial fluid collection along the right frontal convexity, tracking down the anterior falx, compatible with a subdural hematoma
Differential Diagnosis for bowel obstruction: 1, 2, 3
Types of Abdominal Pain: 4
- Kulaylat MN, Doerr RJ. Small bowel obstruction. In: Holzheimer RG, Mannick JA, editors. Surgical Treatment: Evidence-Based and Problem-Oriented. Munich: Zuckschwerdt; 2001. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6873/
- Jackson, P. G., & Raiji, M. T. (2011). Evaluation and management of intestinal obstruction. American family physician, 83(2), 159–165.
- Maung, A. A., Johnson, D. C., Piper, G. L., Barbosa, R. R., Rowell, S. E., Bokhari, F., Collins, J. N., et al. (2012). Evaluation and management of small-bowel obstruction. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 73, S362–S369. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31827019de
- Stabile, Bruce. “The Acute Abdomen.” Chairman’s Hour. Harbor UCLA Department of Surgery Student Lecture Series. 5/17/13. Lecture.
23M w/no known medical history presenting with abdominal “ball” x10d. Patient denies pain, and is tolerating regular diet w/o N/V. Reports lifting weights.
None, non-contributory, no t/e/d.
- VS: T N/A HR 86 RR 18 BP 116/64 O2 N/A
- Gen: Well-appearing young male, no acute distress
- HEENT: PERRL, MMM no lesions
- CV: RRR, normal S1/S2, no murmurs
- Lungs: CTAB, no crackles/wheezes
- Abd: +BS, soft, NT/ND, 3cm bulge in right inguinal region with valsalva, above inguinal ligament, ~7cm lateral to symphysis, non-tender, reduces spontaneously after valsalva GU: uncircumcised penis, testes descended b/l, normal size, non-tender, no herniation through inguinal canal palpated with valsalva
- Ext: Warm, well-perfused, 2+ peripheral pulses
- Neuro: Alert and oriented, appropriate
23M ċ inguinal hernia, currently asymptomatic with no evidence of incarceration/strangulation. Recommend follow-up at city hospital for evaluation and possible surgical repair. Advised to refrain from strenuous activity, heavy lifting.
Physical Examination Techniques: 1
- Observation: Best performed with patient standing and physician seated on a stool facing the patient
- Palpation: place hand over patient’s groin (see figure), with two fingers each superior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. Have the patient cough and feel for a palpable bulge or impulse.
- GU: With a finger in the inguinal canal, bulges felt against the side of the examining finger are direct hernias, while those felt at the tip of the finger are indirect.
Types of Abdominal Wall Hernias: 2
|Name ||Location ||Etiology/Epidemiology |
|1. Umbilical ||Linea alba through weakened umbilical ring.Paraumbilical hernias through linea alba in the region of the umbilicus. ||Congenital or acquired due to increased intra-abdominal pressure (obesity, pregnancy, ascites, PD) |
|2. Epigastric ||Linea alba between umbilicus and xiphoid process ||Congenital weakness of linea alba (lack of decussating fibers) |
|3. Spigelian ||Semilunar line: along the lateral borders of rectus abdominus. Herniation typically occurs caudally (below arcuate line) due to absence of posterior rectus sheath. || |
|4. Incisional ||Site of prior incision ||Poor fascial healing possibly due to: infection (increased risk in wound dehiscence), obesity, smoking, immunosuppression excess wound tension, CT disorders. |
|5. Inguinal ||Indirect: internal (deep) inguinal ring, lateral to inferior epigastric vessels.Direct: external (superficial) inguinal ring, medial to inferior epigastric vessels. ||Indirect > direct. |
|6. Femoral ||Inferior to the inguinal ligament, through empty space medial to femoral sheath. ||F > M, increased likelihood of incarceration/strangulation (40%) |
|7. Lumbar 3 ||Arise in two anatomical triangles:Superior lumbar triangle – lateral border internal oblique, medial border erector spinae, superior border 12thrib.Inferior lumbar triangle – lateral border external oblique, medial border latissimus dorsi, inferior border iliac crest. (See figure) ||Associated with surgery (incisional), typically urologic. |
|8. Obturator ||Protrusion of peritoneal sac through obturator foramen. ||Rare, occur primarily in elderly women (high predisposition for incarceration). |
Locations of Abdominal Wall Hernias:
Layers of the Anterior Abdominal Wall:
Differential diagnosis for groin masses: 4
|Category ||Inguinal 5 ||Scrotal 6 ||Vulvar 7 ||Perineal 8 |
|Vascular ||Varicocele extension ||Varicocele ||Vulvar varicocity |
|Infectious, Inflammatory ||Lymphadenopathy |
Inflammatory joint process (hip, related bursae)
|Neoplastic ||Benign (lipoma) |
Lymph node metastatsis
|Testicular malignancy ||Malignant skin lesions ||Soft-tissue malignancy |
Metastasis (commonly anorectal, prostatic)
|Congenital, Anatomic ||Hernia |
Testis (undescended, retracted)
|Epididymal cyst |
|Embryological remnants (mucocele) || |
|Traumatic ||Hematoma |
Aneurysm (complication of catheterization)
|Hematoma ||Hematoma || |
Locations of Groin Masses: 9
- Amerson JR. Inguinal Canal and Hernia Examination. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 96. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK423/
- Aguirre, D. A., Casola, G., & Sirlin, C. (2004). Abdominal Wall Hernias: MDCT Findings. American Journal of Roentgenology, 183(3), 681–690. doi:10.2214/ajr.183.3.1830681
- Guillem, P., Czarnecki, E., Duval, G., Bounoua, F., & Fontaine, C. (2002). Lumbar hernia: anatomical route assessed by computed tomography. Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA, 24(1), 53–56.
- Roberts, J. R., & Hedges, J. R. (2010). Clinical procedures in emergency medicine. (5th ed., Vol. section 7, p. Ch. 44). W B Saunders Co. Retrieved from http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-3623-4.00044-4
- Shadbolt, C. L., Heinze, S. B., & Dietrich, R. B. (2001). Imaging of groin masses: inguinal anatomy and pathologic conditions revisited. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, 21 Spec No, S261–71.
- Eyre, RC. Evaluation of nonacute scrotal pathology in adult men. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2013.
- Foster, D. C. (2002). Vulvar disease. Obstetrics and gynecology, 100(1), 145–163.
- Tappouni, R. F., Sarwani, N. I., Tice, J. G., & Chamarthi, S. (2011). Imaging of unusual perineal masses. American Journal of Roentgenology, 196(4), W412–20. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.4728
- Collins, R. (2008). Differential diagnosis in primary care. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
14 year-old female, previously healthy, brought in by ambulance s/p auto vs. pedestrian.
Incident unwitnessed, paramedics report no LOC with GCS 15 at scene. GCS 10 upon arrival to ED, with 2min GTC seizure. Patient intubated for airway protection and CT head showed non-displaced frontal bone fracture and small frontal SAH. Patient self-extubated, returned to baseline mental status and was transferred to PICU.
- VS: 128/76mmHg, 120bpm, 22 R/min, 100% RA, 37.6°C
- General: Alert and responsive young female with multiple bandages on extremities
- HEENT: Right frontal hematoma, no bony defect palpated, multiple facial abrasions, no otorrhea, no rhinorrhea, TM clear b/l, no other ecchymosis.
- CV: RRR, normal S1/S2, no M/R/G
- Lungs: CTAB
- Abdomen: +BS, soft, NT/ND, no rebound/guarding, no flank ecchymoses
- Neuro: AAOx3, CN II-XII intact, sensation/motor/reflexes symmetric and intact.
- Extremities: Well-perfused with good pulses, no focal bony tenderness, no joint effusions, multiple abrasions on extensor surfaces of all four extremities.
Assessment & Plan:
14yo female, previously healthy, s/p auto vs. peds followed by GTC seizure and CT head showing small SAH and non-displaced frontal bone skull fracture. No evidence of basilar skull fracture on examination or imaging. Seizure likely 2/2 irritation from SAH. Patient was followed closely in PICU with q1h neuro checks with low threshold for repeat CT if change in mental status or more seizures occurred. The patient was eventually transferred to the general ward and was discharged with neurology follow-up and Keppra for seizure prophylaxis for 6mo.
Types of Skull Fractures:
17 year-old female presenting to the pediatric ED with sore throat for 2 days.
The patient reports steadily worsening sore throat over the past 2 days, associated with a sensation of swelling. The pain is described as sharp, 4/10 in severity, located on the left side of her throat, and worsened with swallowing. She denies inability to swallow or difficulty breathing, she also denies fever, cough, new skin rashes or genital lesions.
She has no PMH/PSH, takes no medications, denies t/e/d use and is not currently sexually active.
- VS: 111/65mmHg, 80bpm, 97.8°, 16/min, 100% RA
- Gen: Well-appearing, NAD
- HEENT: PERRL, no conjunctival injection, TM clear b/l, minimal pharyngeal erythema on left with 6mm white circular lesion on left tonsil, no tonsillar enlargement, no uvular deviation, no cervical LAD, neck supple no masses, normal neck ROM
- CV: RRR, no M/R/G, Lungs: CTAB
- Abdomen: +BS, soft, NT/ND
- Ext: Warm, well-perfused, normal peripheral pulses
Assessment & Plan:
17yo female with no significant PMH with acute pharyngitis for 2 days. The most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms is viral pharyngitis, potentially herpangina (given the appearance of the tonsillar lesion). A more serious viral/bacterial pharyngitis is less likely given the absence of fever or significant erythema/exudate. There was no uvular deviation to suggest peritonsillar abscess and no evidence of airway obstruction to suggest other acute processes (epiglottitis, retropharyngeal abscess). The plan is to recommend supportive care and ibuprofen for symptomatic relief. The patient will be discharged home in good condition with precautions to return if symptoms worsen or she begins to have difficulty swallowing/breathing.
Differential Diagnosis of Acute Pharyngitis:
- Respiratory distress: epiglottitis, retropharyngeal abscess, peritonsillar abscess, EBV (obstruction in or near pharynx)
- Fatigue: infectious mononucleuosis
- Abrupt onset: epiglottitis
Evaluation (physical examination):
- Vesicles anterior: herpetic stomatitis, SJS, Behcet
- Vesicles posterior: herpangina (± involvement of extremities)
- Asymmetry: peritonsillar abscess
- Stridor, drooling, respiratory distress: airway obstruction
- Generalized inflammation: Kawasaki