A young patient with no past medical history is brought in by ambulance after a high-speed motor vehicle accident. Trauma survey demonstrates absent motor/sensation in bilateral lower extremities with sensory level at T3-T4. Computed tomography of the cervical spine was obtained and is shown below.
Fracture-dislocation at C6-C7 and C7-T1 with comminuted burst fracture to C7 and locked facet joint with resultant anterior migration of C6 over C7, unstable cervical spine fracture.
- Stretch on strong nuchal ligament transmits force to vertebral body.
- Stability: Generally stable unless >50% compression or multiple contiguous.
- Severe flexion force, avulsion of fragment of anterior/inferior portion of vertebral body.
- Stability: Unstable, involves anterior/posterior ligamentous disruptions.
- Oblique fracture of spinous process of lower cervical spine.
- Stability: Stable
- Pure ligamentous injury without associated fracture.
- Imaging: Widening of interspinous and intervertebral spaces on lateral.
- Stability: Potentially unstable.
- Anterior displacement of spine above level of injury caused by dislocation of upper inferior facet from lower superior facet.
- Imaging: Anterior displacement greater than ½ AP diameter of vertebral body.
- Stability: Unstable
- Head trauma with shear force directed at odontoid.
- Sub-classification: Type I (above transverse ligament), type II (odontoid base), type III (extension to body of C2)
- Stability: Types II, III unstable.
Rotary atlantoaxial dislocation
- Imaging: Open-mouth odontoid, asymmetric lateral masses of C1.
- Stability: Unstable
- Flexion and rotation centered around single facet results in contralateral facet dislocation.
- Imaging: AP radiograph shows spinous processes above dislocation displaced from midline, lateral radiograph shows anterior displacement of lower vertebra (less than ½ AP diameter of vertebral body).
- Forced extension causes compressive force on posterior elements of C1 between occiput and C2.
- Stability: Unstable
- Abrupt deceleration causes fracture of bilateral pedicles of C2, potentially with associated subluxation. Rarely associated with SCI due to large diameter of neural canal at C2.
- Imaging: May be associated with retropharyngeal space edema.
- Stability: Unstable
- Abrupt extension (ex. diving) results in stretch along anterior longitudinal ligament with avulsion of anterior/inferior fragment of vertebral body (usually C5-C7).
- Imaging: May be radiographically similar to flexion-teardrop fracture.
- Complications: Central cord syndrome
- Stability: Unstable in extension
- Force applied from above or below causes transmission of force to intervertebral disc and vertebral body.
- Imaging: Comminuted vertebral body, >40% compression of anterior vertebral body.
- Complications: Fracture fragments may impinge on spinal cord.
- Stability: Stable
- Vertical force transmitted from occipital condyles to superior articular facets of atlas, resulting in fractures of anterior and posterior arches.
- Imaging: Widening of predental space. Open-mouth odontoid view may reveal bilateral offset distance of >7mm between lateral masses of C1/C2.
- Stability: Unstable
Cervical Spine Imaging Decision Rule (Canadian)
- MD RK, MD BED, CAQ-SM KHM, MD WF. Emergency Department Evaluation and Treatment of Cervical Spine Injuries. Emergency Medicine Clinics of NA. 2015;33(2):241-282. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2014.12.002.
- Denis F. Spinal instability as defined by the three-column spine concept in acute spinal trauma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984;(189):65-76.
- Munera F, Rivas LA, Nunez DB, Quencer RM. Imaging evaluation of adult spinal injuries: emphasis on multidetector CT in cervical spine trauma. Radiology. 2012;263(3):645-660. doi:10.1148/radiol.12110526.
A 47-year-old male with no known medical history presents with dysphagia. He reports 3 weeks of symptoms, describing difficulty predominantly with swallowing solid foods which is aided by the concomitant ingestion of liquids. He points to his throat as the area of discomfort, but has not noted any choking or coughing after attempts at swallowing. He occasionally suffers from “heartburn”, describing a burning sensation in his chest provoked by certain foods and was previously prescribed omeprazole which he has not taken for several years. He denies any prior surgeries, tobacco or alcohol use, relevant family history or similar symptoms in the past.
Physical examination was unrevealing, demonstrating a normal neurological examination, normal phonation, normal oropharynx and no appreciable neck masses. The patient was observed to comfortably swallow water.
He was discharged with gastroenterology follow-up and ultimately underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy which demonstrated narrowing of the distal esophagus suggestive of a peptic stricture. Dilation was deferred in favor of resumption of proton pump inhibitor therapy.
Types of Dysphagia1,2
- Characterized by difficulty initiating swallowing and accompanied by choking/coughing, nasopharyngeal regurgitation or aspiration.
- Involved anatomy: Tongue, muscles of mastication, soft palate (elevation to close nasopharynx), suprahyoid muscles (elevate larynx), epiglottis (occlude airway), cricopharyngeus muscle (release upper esophageal sphincter). Neurological control predominantly coordinated by cranial nerves (V, VII, IX, X, XII)
- Delayed after initiating swallowing and characterized by a sensation of food bolus arresting in transit.
- Involved anatomy: Skeletal and smooth muscle along the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. Neurological control predominantly coordinated by medulla
Important Historical Features5,6
- Difficulty with liquids suggests motility problem
- Difficulty with solids only or solids progressing to liquids suggests mechanical obstruction
- Identify a history of head and neck surgery or radiation therapy
- Identify a personal or family history of connective tissue disorder (scleroderma, RA, SLE) which may be associated with esophageal dysmotility
- Review home medications (NSAID, bisphosphonate, potassium chloride, ferrous sulfate)
- Immunocompromised patients are at risk for infectious esophagitis (Candida, CMV, HSV) which are generally associated with odynophagia
- A history of heartburn may be associated with reflux-mediated complications such as erosive esophagitis, peptic stricture, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
- Young patients are more likely to be affected by eosinophilic esophagitis
- Patient localization of site of obstruction is generally accurate, patients are more accurate at localizing proximal than distal obstructions7
Algorithm for the Evaluation of Dysphagia8
Patients who are safely tolerating oral intake can be referred for outpatient gastroenterology evaluation. Admission should be considered for patients at high-risk for aspiration.
- Spieker MR. Evaluating dysphagia. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(12):3639-3648.
- Abdel Jalil AA, Katzka DA, Castell DO. Approach to the patient with dysphagia. Am J Med. 2015;128(10):1138.e17-.e23. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.04.026.
- Shaker R. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2006;2(9):633-634.
- Galmiche JP, Clouse RE, Bálint A, et al. Functional esophageal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(5):1459-1465. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2005.08.060.
- McCullough GH, Martino R. Clinical Evaluation of Patients with Dysphagia: Importance of History Taking and Physical Exam. In: Manual of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques for Disorders of Deglutition. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2012:11-30. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3779-6_2.
- Cook IJ. Diagnostic evaluation of dysphagia. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;5(7):393-403. doi:10.1038/ncpgasthep1153.
- Wilcox CM, Alexander LN, Clark WS. Localization of an obstructing esophageal lesion. Is the patient accurate? Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40(10):2192-2196.
- Trate DM, Parkman HP, Fisher RS. Dysphagia. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Prim Care. 1996;23(3):417-432.
- American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on management of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Gastroenterology. 1999;116(2):452-454. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(99)70143-5.
- Spechler SJ. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on treatment of patients with dysphagia caused by benign disorders of the distal esophagus. Gastroenterology. 1999;117(1):229-232. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(99)70572-X.
- Varadarajulu S, Eloubeidi MA, Patel RS, et al. The yield and the predictors of esophageal pathology when upper endoscopy is used for the initial evaluation of dysphagia. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61(7):804-808.
An 8-month old male is brought to the emergency department with fever. He has had four days of fever (temperature ranging from 37-40°C), rash on trunk and extremities, white-colored tongue discoloration, and irritability with decreased oral intake. Temperature on presentation was 39.4°C, examination revealed an erythematous maculopapular rash on the extremities and trunk including soles of the feet. Mucous membrane involvement was noted with oropharyngeal erythema and bilateral conjunctival injection. Neck examination demonstrated right-sided cervical adenopathy.
- WBC: 23.4 (N: 59%, B: 21%)
- ESR: 100mm/hr
- CRP: 7.59mg/dL
- Albumin: 3.3g/dL
- AST/ALT: 78U/L, 65U/L
- UA: 7WBC, no bacteria
The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of Kawasaki Disease and was treated with IVIG and high-dose aspirin. The patient demonstrated marked improvement with treatment and had a normal echocardiogram. He was discharged on hospital day three.
- Age: 6 months to 5 years
- Northeast Asian
- Possible heritable component
- Seasonal (winter/spring)
- Acute febrile (T > 39°C refractory to anti-pyretics)
- Subacute (coronary vasculitis)
- Fever >5d
- Criteria (4/5)
- Conjunctivitis (bilateral, non-exudative)
- Oropharynx changes (strawberry tongue, erythema, perioral)
- Cervical lymphadenopathy (unilateral, >1.5cm)
- Extremity changes (erythema, edema, palm/sole involvement)
- Incomplete (2-3 criteria)
- CBC: Elevated WBC (neutrophil predominant)
- Urinalysis: Sterile pyuria
- Acute phase reactants: Elevated ESR (>40-60mm/hr), CRP (>3.0-3.5mg/dL)
- CMP: Hyponatremia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, elevated transaminases
- ECG: AV block, ischemia/infarction (aneurysm/thrombosis)
- Echocardiography: Decreased LVEF, MR, pericardial effusion
- Hospital admission
- IVIG (2g/kg)
- Aspirin (80mg/kg/day)
Algorithm for the Evaluation of Kawasaki and Incomplete Kawasaki Disease3,4
- Shiari R. Kawasaki Disease; A Review Article. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2014;2(1 SP 154-159).
- Yu JJ. Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease. Korean J Pediatr. 2012;55(3):83-87. doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.3.83.
- Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Pediatrics. 2004;114(6):1708-1733. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2182.
- Yellen ES, Gauvreau K, Takahashi M, et al. Performance of 2004 American Heart Association recommendations for treatment of Kawasaki disease. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e234-e241. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0606.
A 38 year-old male with no medical history presents to the emergency department with abdominal pain. He had one episode each of non-bloody emesis followed by watery, non-bloody diarrhea and cited several sick contacts at home with similar symptoms. Vital signs were notable for bradycardia with a heart rate ranging from 38-46bpm though he was normotensive. The examination including abdominal examination was benign. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was obtained which demonstrated sinus bradycardia. The patient was asymptomatic during episodes of bradycardia and his heart rate responded appropriately during activity and on further history reported that he was an endurance athlete and runs multiple marathons each year. He was discharged after symptomatic improvement with anti-emetics.
- Definition: heart rate <60bpm
- Sinus rhythm: upright P-wave in I, II, aV; inverted P-wave in aVR
Electrocardiographic Findings 1-4
- Sinus bradycardia
- Potentially asymptomatic and present in healthy individuals
- Sinoatrial node dysfunction (sick sinus syndrome, SSS) 5,6
- Sinus bradycardia
- Sinus arrest
- Tachy-brady syndrome (sinus bradycardia/arrest interspersed with SVT)
- Atrioventricular block
- 1st degree: PR prolongation, rarely symptomatic
- 2nd degree: Intermittent interruption of conduction of atrial impulses to ventricles
- Type 1: progressive PR prolongation leading to interrupted conduction
- Type 2: fixed PR interval with interrupted conduction
- 3rd degree: atrioventricular dissociation
- Slow atrial fibrillation
- Irregular RR interval without recognizable P-wave
- Analysis of 277 patients presenting to the emergency department with “compromising” bradycardia.
- Syncope (33%)
- Dizziness (22%)
- Angina (17%)
- Dyspnea/Heart Failure (11%)
- High-grade AV block (48%)
- Sinus bradycardia (17%)
- Sinus arrest (15%)
- Slow atrial fibrillation (14%)
- Primary (49%)
- Drug (21%)
- Ischemia/Infarction (14%)
- Pacemaker failure (6%)
- Intoxication (6%)
- Electrolyte disorder (4%)
Important Historical Features8,9
- Chest pain
- Cold intolerance, weight gain
- Headache, AMS, trauma
- Abdominal pain/distension
- Medication changes
Important Examination Findings8,9
- Perfusion (temperature, capillary refill)
- Presence of fistula or hemodialysis catheter
- Existing device (malfunction)
- Continuous telemetry monitoring
- Digoxin level
- Infection titers (RPR, Lyme)
- Cardiac enzymes
- Atropine 0.5mg IV q3-5min (maximum 3mg)
- Dopamine/epinephrine infusion
- Temporary pacemaker (transcutaneous, transvenous) with blood-pressure preserving sedation
- Admission and evaluation for permanent pacemaker placement
- Stable (outpatient evaluation)
- Event monitor
- Stress test (chronotropic incompetence)
Algorithm for the Evaluation and Management of Bradycardia
- Mangrum JM, DiMarco JP. The evaluation and management of bradycardia. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(10):703-709. doi:10.1056/NEJM200003093421006.
- Ufberg JW, Clark JS. Bradydysrhythmias and atrioventricular conduction blocks. Emergency Medicine Clinics of NA. 2006;24(1):1–9–v. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2005.08.006.
- Hayden GE, Brady WJ, Pollack M, Harrigan RA. Electrocardiographic manifestations: diagnosis of atrioventricular block in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2004;26(1):95-106. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2003.10.001.
- Da Costa D, Brady WJ, Edhouse J. Bradycardias and atrioventricular conduction block. BMJ. 2002;324(7336):535-538.
- Semelka M, Gera J, Usman S. Sick sinus syndrome: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2013;87(10):691-696.
- Ewy GA. Sick sinus syndrome: synopsis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(6):539-540. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.029.
- Sodeck GH, Domanovits H, Meron G, et al. Compromising bradycardia: management in the emergency department. Resuscitation. 2007;73(1):96-102. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.08.006.
- Deal N. Evaluation and management of bradydysrhythmias in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Practice. 2013;15(9):1–15–quiz15–6.
- Demla V, Rohra A. Emergency Department Evaluation and Management of Bradyarrhythmia. Hospital Medicine Clinics. 2015;4(4):526-539. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehmc.2015.06.009.
- Brady WJ, Harrigan RA. Evaluation and management of bradyarrhythmias in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Clinics of NA. 1998;16(2):361-388.
A young child, otherwise healthy, is brought to the pediatric emergency department after a fall. The parents report a fall from approximately 2 feet after which the patient cried immediately and without apparent loss of consciousness. Over the course of the day, the patient developed an enlarging area of swelling over the left head. The parents were concerned about a progressive decrease in activity and interest in oral intake by the child, and they were brought to the emergency department for evaluation. Examination demonstrated a well-appearing and interactive child – appropriate for age. Head examination was notable for a 5x5cm hematoma over the left temporoparietal skull with an underlying palpable skull irregularity not present on the contralateral side. Non-contrast head computed tomography was obtained.
Fracture of the left temporal and parietal bone with overlying scalp hematoma.
Algorithm for the Evaluation of Pediatric Head Trauma (PECARN)1,2,3
- Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Dayan PS, et al. Identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009;374(9696):1160-1170. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61558-0.
- Brenner D, Elliston C, Hall E, Berdon W. Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2001;176(2):289-296. doi:10.2214/ajr.176.2.1760289.
- Schonfeld D, Bressan S, Da Dalt L, Henien MN, Winnett JA, Nigrovic LE. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network head injury clinical prediction rules are reliable in practice. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2014;99(5):427-431. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305004.
A 62 year-old male with no significant medical history, presented to the emergency department with several days of vomiting. Examination showed suprapubic fullness with tenderness to palpation and a bedside ultrasound was performed:
Ultrasound revealed moderate bilateral hydronephrosis with a relatively non-distended bladder. Labs were notable for new renal failure and the patient was admitted for continued evaluation. He was ultimately diagnosed with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis with bilateral distal ureteral obstruction requiring stenting.
Anatomy of Acute Urinary Retention:
Differential Diagnosis of Acute Urinary Retention:1,2,3
A 50 year-old male with a history of colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma on chemotherapy presented with a chief complaint of “vomiting”. He was unwilling to provide further history, repeating that he had vomited blood prior to presentation. His initial vital signs were notable for tachycardia. Physical examination showed some dried vomitus, brown in color, at the nares and lips; left upper quadrant abdominal tenderness to palpation; and guaiac-positive stool. Point-of-care hemoglobin was 3g/dL below the most recent measure two months prior. As his evaluation progressed, he developed hypotension and was transfused two units of uncrossmatched blood with adequate blood pressure response – he was started empirically on broad-spectrum antibiotics for an intra-abdominal source. Notable laboratory findings included a normal hemoglobin/hematocrit, acute kidney injury, and elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis presumably attributable to serum lactate of 10.7mmol/L. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated pneumoperitoneum with complex ascites concerning for bowel perforation. The patient deteriorated, was intubated, started on vasopressors and admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. The initial operative report noted extensive adhesions and perforated small bowel with feculent peritonitis. He has since undergone multiple further abdominal surgeries and remains critically ill.
Free air is seen diffusely in the non-dependent portions of the abdomen: in the anterior abdomen and pelvis, inferior to the diaphragm, and in the perisplenic region. There is complex free fluid in the abdomen.
Algorithm for the Evaluation of Hypotension1
This process for the evaluation of hypotension in the emergency department was developed by Dr. Ravi Morchi. In the case above, a systematic approach to the evaluation of hypotension using ultrasonography and appropriately detailed physical examination may have expedited the patient’s care. The expertly-designed algorithm traverses the cardiovascular system, halting at evaluable checkpoints that may contribute to hypotension.
- The process begins with the cardiac conduction system to identify malignant dysrhythmias (bradycardia, or non-sinus tachycardia >170bpm), which, in unstable patients are managed with electricity.
- The next step assesses intravascular volume with physical examination or bedside ultrasonography of the inferior vena cava. Decreased right atrial pressure (whether due to hypovolemia, hemorrhage, or a distributive process) is evidenced by a small and collapsible IVC. If hemorrhage is suspected, further ultrasonography with FAST and evaluation of the abdominal aorta may identify intra- or retroperitoneal bleeding.
- If a normal or elevated right atrial pressure is identified, evaluate for dissociation between the RAP and left ventricular end-diastolic volume. This is typically caused by a pre- or intra-pulmonary obstructive process such as tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, massive pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, or elevated intra-thoracic pressures secondary to air-trapping. Thoracic ultrasonography can identify pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, or signs of elevated right ventricular systolic pressures (RV:LV, septal flattening).
- Assuming adequate intra-vascular volume is arriving at the left ventricle, rapid echocardiography can be used to provide a gross estimate of cardiac contractility and point to a cardiogenic process. If there is no obvious pump failure, auscultation may reveal murmurs that would suggest systolic output is refluxing to lower-resistance routes (ex. mitral insufficiency, aortic insufficiency, or ventricular septal defect).
- Finally, if the heart rate is suitable, volume deficits are not grossly at fault, no obstructive process is suspected, and cardiac contractility is adequate and directed appropriately through the vascular tree, the cause may be distributive. Physical examination may reveal dilated capillary beds and low systemic vascular resistance.
- Morchi R. Diagnosis Deconstructed: Solving Hypotension in 30 Seconds. Emergency Medicine News. 2015.
49M with a history of hypertension who presented to his primary physician for routine follow-up and was referred to the ED for an abnormal ECG. He denied chest pain, shortness of breath, or any limitation to baseline exercise tolerance. His vital signs were notable for systolic hypertension and his examination was unremarkable. A chest x-ray showed no acute cardiopulmonary findings. His initial ECG demonstrated a biphasic T-wave in V2 and deep, symmetric T-wave inversions in V3-V6. His initial serum troponin was markedly elevated at 3.499. He was admitted and urgent coronary angiography revealed proximal LAD stenosis (70%), mid-LAD stenosis (85%) and 1st right posterolateral stenosis (85%) which were stented. He was discharged on post-procedure day one and has remained asymptomatic at outpatient follow-up.
Initially described in 1982 where a subset of patients who did poorly with medical management of “impending myocardial infarction” (essentialy unstable angina) were found to have characteristic ECG changes. These patients were noted to be at increased risk for extensive anterior wall myocardial infarctions due to proximal LAD stenosis.
Wellens ECG patterns
- History of chest pain
- Normal or slightly-elevated cardiac enzymes
- No precordial Q-waves
- Isoelectric or <1mm ST-segment elevation
- Pattern present in pain-free state
- Type A (25%): Biphasic T-wave in V2/V3
- Type B (75%): Deep, symmetrically inverted T-waves in V2/V3
Wellens Syndrome (or LAD coronary T-wave syndrome) represents a “pre-infarction” stage of coronary artery disease manifested by critical LAD stenosis. The natural history includes progression to extensive anterior wall myocardial infarction, often associated with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiogenic shock and death. These changes may be mistaken for “non-specific” T-wave changes (which in the presence of a non-concerning history and typically non-elevated cardiac markers) may lead providers to inappropriate dispositions such a stress testing which is contraindicated. Recognition of this pattern and its appropriate management (urgent coronary angiography) is critical.
The case presented above is atypical. The patient had no history of chest pain and cardiac enzymes were significantly elevated – two features which are uncommon in Wellens Syndrome. However, the patient’s elevated cardiac biomarkers led to admission and angiography with identification of the characteristic proximal LAD stenosis (and other disease).
- de Zwaan C, Bär FW, Wellens HJ. Characteristic electrocardiographic pattern indicating a critical stenosis high in left anterior descending coronary artery in patients admitted because of impending myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 1982;103(4 Pt 2):730-736.
- Tandy TK, Bottomy DP, Lewis JG. Wellens’ syndrome. YMEM. 1999;33(3):347-351.
- Rhinehardt J, Brady WJ, Perron AD, Mattu A. Electrocardiographic manifestations of Wellens’ syndrome. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2002;20(7):638-643. doi:10.1053/ajem.2002.34800.
- Mead N, O Keefe K. Wellen′s Syndrome: An Ominous EKG pattern. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2009;2(3):206– doi:10.4103/0974-2700.55347.
- Kannan L, Figueredo VM. Images in clinical medicine. Wellens’ syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(1):66. doi:10.1056/NEJMicm1400946.
34M with a history of HTN, polysubstance abuse, presenting with muscle cramps. He reported onset of diffuse muscle cramping 1-hour prior to presentation while showering. Symptoms involved bilateral upper and lower extremities and resolved spontaneously.
On initial evaluation, the patient was tachycardic and hypertensive. Examination was notable for tremors in bilateral upper extremities with outstretched hands, as well as of extended tongue. Other notable findings included spasm of the upper extremity during blood pressure measurement, hyperreflexia and clonus.
Laboratory evaluation was notable for normal total calcium level, low ionized calcium level, primary respiratory alkalosis, and elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis.
The patient was treated with intravenous fluids, benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal, and calcium gluconate 4g IV and was admitted.
- 15% bound to anions (phosphate, lactate, citrate)
- 40% bound to albumin
- 45% free (regulated by PTH, Vit-D)
- Conditions causing changes in total calcium (without affecting ionized calcium)
- Low albumin causes hypocalcemia. Corrected = measured + [0.8 x (4-albumin)]
- Elevated albumin causes hypercalcemia
- Multiple myeloma causes hypercalcemia
- Conditions causing changes in ionized calcium (without affecting total calcium)
- Alkalemia causes increased ionized calcium binding to albumin and decreases ionized calcium levels
- Hyperphosphatemia causes increased ionized calcium binding to phosphate and decreases ionized calcium levels
- Hyperparathyroidism causes decreased ionized calcium binding to albumin and increases ionized calcium levels
Causes of Hypocalcemia1,2,3
- Carpopedal spasm
- QT prolongation
- Heart failure
- Basal ganglia calcifications
- Severe (symptomatic, QT prolongation)
- Calcium gluconate 1-2g IV in 50mL of D5W over 10-20min followed by slow infusion of additional 2g over 2 hours.
- Calcium gluconate 1g PO q6h
- Calcitriol 0.2mcg PO BID
- Yu, AS. Relation between total and ionized serum calcium concentrations. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed on October 6th, 2016.)
- Cooper MS, Gittoes NJL. Diagnosis and management of hypocalcaemia. BMJ. 2008;336(7656):1298-1302. doi:10.1136/bmj.39582.589433.BE.
- Hannan FM, Thakker RV. Investigating hypocalcaemia. BMJ. 2013;346(may09 1):f2213-f2213. doi:10.1136/bmj.f2213.
A young male with a history of HIV (untreated for the last year, with unknown CD4 count), and syphilis (reportedly treated with an intramuscular injection 1 year ago), presents with 4 months of a painful rash on the palms and soles and diplopia. Examination revealed the rash pictured below, ocular examination with minimal papilledema and anterior chamber inflammation.
Labs were unremarkable. CSF sampling was notable for 34 WBC’s with lymphocyte predominance (92%), and elevated protein (56mg/dL). The patient was admitted for syphilis with presumed neurosyphilis. Serum RPR titer was elevated at 1:64, FTA-ABS and CSF VDRL were reactive. The patient was treated with intravenous penicillin and anti-retroviral therapy was reinitiated.
- Sexual contact (estimated transmission probability 60% per partner)
- African-American, Hispanic
- Male > Female
- Male (primary syphilis), female (secondary syphilis) – lesion visibility
- Urban > rural
||Chancre, reginal lymphadenopathy
||Rash, fever, malaise, generalized lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane lesions, condyloma lata, headache, meningitis
||Early (<1 year)
Late (>1 year)
Aortic aneurysm, aortic insufficiency, coronary artery ostial stenosis
|Acute syphilitic meningitis: headache, confusion, meningeal irritation
|Meningovascular: cranial nerve palsy
|General paresis: headache, vertigo, personality changes, vascular event
|Tabes dorsalis: dementia, ataxia, Argyl-Robertson, [arrow-down] proprioception
Local tissue destruction
- Non-treponemal (screening)
- RPR, VDRL
- Limitations: sensitivity, false positive (age, pregnancy, drugs, malignancy, autoimmune, viral infections)
- Treponemal (confirmatory)
- Indications for CSF sampling: neurologic/ophthalmologic symptoms, tertiary syphilis (aortitis, gumma, iritis), HIV coinfection with elevated RPR titer (> 1:32)
- CSF: leukocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes), protein
- CSF VDRL reactive
- Negative CSF FTA-ABS may rule out neurosyphilis
Syphilis in HIV-infected Individuals2
- Primary: larger and more lesion, multiple ulcers
- Secondary: genital ulcers more common, higher RPR/VDRL titers
- Tertiary: possibly more rapid progression to neurosyphilis
- Singh AE, Romanowski B. Syphilis: review with emphasis on clinical, epidemiologic, and some biologic features. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12(2):187-209.
- French P. Syphilis. BMJ. 2007;334(7585):143-147. doi:10.1136/bmj.39085.518148.BE.